Essential Amino Acids
Histidine is one of the eight essential amino acids that are found in high concentrations in hemoglobin. It is very useful in treating anemia due to its relationship to hemoglobin. It has been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and has also been linked to allergic response and has been used to treat allergy. It also assists in maintaining proper blood pH.
Use To Bodybuilders: Minimal, only in improving digestion Dosage: Minimum of 1000 mg daily, but the recommendation is 8-10 mg a day per kilogram of bodyweight. Chances are you get at least two or three times that in your diet. Overdosing: Too much histidine may lead to stress and the aggravation of mental disorders such as anxiety and schizophrenia. Medical Uses: Used in the treating of arthritis and nerve deafness. Sources: Found in dairy, meat, poultry, fish as well as rice, wheat and rye. Deficiency:Unknown.
Coded for in the DNA, isoleucine has a chemical composition that is similar to that of leucine. However, the arrangement of its atoms is different which then has other properties. It is a hydrophobic amino acid that has two chiral centers. Meaning there are four stereoisomers and two diastereomers. It can be found in eggs, pork, mutton, chicken, pulses and beans.
Use To Bodybuilders: Of similar importance as leucine, Very important as part of the BCAA stack. Dosage: 10-12 mg per kilo of bodyweight. Overdosing: Causes elevated urination. No serious problems. May become serious if you have kidney or liver disease. Medical Uses: Wound healing. Sources: Chicken, cashews, fish, almonds, eggs, lentils, liver, meat. Deficiency: Unknown.
Nutritionally one of the essential amino acids, leucine is isometric with isoleucine. Most commonly found in proteins, it is also significant in optimal growth especially in infancy and childhood, also in nitrogen balance in adults. It plays a major part in the maintenance of the muscles by equalizing synthesis and breakdown. Whole grains and milk products are its best sources.
Use To Bodybuilders: Leucine may be one of the strongest natural anabolic agents in the world. It will not give you amazing results, however, simply because you are already taking in quite large amounts of it. Dosage: 16 mg per kilo of bodyweight. Overdosing:Unknown, may increase ammonia. Medical Uses: Prevention of muscle-wasting in states of deprivation. Sources: Found in nearly all protein sources, including brown rice, beans, nuts, and whole wheat. Deficiency: Unknown.
Commonly found in proteins, lysine has a 4-aminobutyl side- chain classified together with arginine and histidine. Its human nutritional requirement is 1- 1.5 grams a day. Deficiency of which can lead to lack of niacin or vitamin B that causes a disease called pellagra. It can actually function as a nutritional supplement to help fight against herpes. It is obtained in most legumes, cereal grains and fish.
Use To Bodybuilders: Next to the maintenance and manufacture of muscle protein, Lysine plays a role in revitalizing the body to combat fatigue and overtraining and it maintains a positive nitrogen balance, creating an anabolic environment within the body. Dosage: Normal recommendation is 12 mg per kilo of bodyweight, but daily intake exceeds that, and even when taking in 1.5 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight, a couple of extra mg won’t hurt. It’s a priority amino acid to the athlete. but beware of overdosing. Overdosing: Could result in higher LDL cholesterol, diarrhea and gallstones. Medical Uses:Treating of cold sores and lack of energy. Sources: Cheese, eggs, milk, meat, yeast, potatoes and lima beans. Deficiency: May lead to enzyme disorders, lack of energy, hair loss (common for protein shortage), weight loss, no appetite and loss of concentration.
Lipotropic in nature, methionine is considered as one of the essential amino acids. Together with cyesteine, they are the only sulfur- containing proteinogenic amino acids. It has a part in carnitine and taurine synthesis by the processes called transsulfuration pathway, lecithin production and phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Astheroclerosis can be achieved if there is improper conversion of such. Meats, vegetables, nuts and legumes are its best supply.
Use To Bodybuilders: Fat metabolization, better digestion and anti-oxidizing properties make this a valuable compound. Dosage: 12 mg per kilo of bodyweight. If you think it may be a good idea to supplement this, you may as well invest in some ZMA. The supplement is cost-effective and yields higher results than just Methionine. Overdosing:None, except in case of a shortage of B-Vitamins, in which case you are an easy target for arteriosclerosis. Medical Uses: Used to treat depression, arthritis and liver disease. Sources: Meat, fish, beans, eggs, garlic, lentils, onions, yogurt and seeds. Deficiency:Causes dementia, fatty liver, slow growth, weakness, skin lesions and edema.
Existing in two forms, phenylalanine are enantiomers or mirror- image molecules of one another. With a benzyl side- chain, its name was derived from its chemical structure composed of a phenyl group alternated for one of the hydrogens of alanine. Due to its phenyl group, it is considered as an aromatic compound. Its great sources are milk, avocados, pulses, legumes, nuts and seafoods.
Use To Bodybuilders: Apart from motivation and extra Vitamin D, Phenylalanine is of the use because of the nerve upgrading which will allow for maximal contraction and relaxation of the muscles. The DL-form is often supplemented as an endurance enhancer. Because of the toxicity level, this is never done long-term. Dosage:Recommendation is 14 mg per kilo of bodyweight. You’ll be getting more than that no doubt, and I see no need to increase that. Especially with the potential side-effects. Overdosing: This is not a wise supplement to be taking by pregnant women and diabetics. It results in higher blood pressure, headaches, nausea, heart trouble and nerve damage. Medical Uses: For treatment of arthritis and depression. Sources: All dairy products, almonds, avocados, nuts, and seeds. Deficiency: Its rare, but if it occurs it leads to weakness, lethargy, liver damage and stunted growth.
One of the essential amino acids that contains two chiral centers, threonine has four possible stereoisomers and two diastereomers. With its name that can be used in a single enantiomer, its side chain can also undergo O- linked glycosylation. It can become phosphorylated through the action of a threonine kinase. Lentils, fish, meats and cheese are its best supply.
Use To Bodybuilders: Absorption of protein, maintenance of muscle and important to good health. Dosage: 8 mg per kilo of bodyweight, generally advised in amounts of 100-500 mg when supplemented. Overdosing: Not known. Medical Uses: Treatment for mental health. Sources: Meat, dairy, and eggs. Deficiency: Irritability and being difficult, nothing severe. Less immunity against disease.
It may not be easily synthesized, tryptophan functions as building blocks in protein biosynthesis. A precursor for serotonin, melatonin and niacin, its functional group is indole. It has been implicated to bring about schizophrenia in persons that cannot be able to metabolize it correctly. It can be obtained in turkey, chicken, sesame , peanuts and chocolates.
This amino acid is one of the three major Branched-Chain Amino Acids. BCAA levels are significantly decreased by insulin. Intake of high dietary sugar or glucose causes the release of insulin which in turn causes a drop in BCAA levels. This amino acid competes with Tyrosine and Tryptophan in crossing the blood-brain barrier. This amino acid is also actively absorbed and used directly by the muscle as an energy source.
Use To Bodybuilders: In combination with Isoleucine and Leucine. Dosage: 16 mg per kilo of bodyweight. Overdosing: Crawling sensation in the skin is common, hallucination, may be hazardous to people with kidney and liver disease. Medical Uses: None, not separately. Sources: Dairy, meat, grain, mushrooms, soy, peanuts. Deficiency: Leads to MSUD.